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Foot Conditions

Learn more about the different conditions we treat.

Click the underlined treatments for more information

Plantar Heel Pain

Heel Pain

The plantar fascia is a thick longitudinal fibrous band that runs from your heel to your toes. It plays an important role in supporting the arch of your foot. When the plantar fascia is under high load of tension / being compromised due to repetitive stress, this could lead to the formation of microtears in the fascial band, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around the plantar fascia. 


Common causes:

  • Poor footwear

  • Overused injury (doing too much too soon)

  • Foot posture

  • Prolonged hours on your feet

  • Tight calves and hamstring

  • Running / dancing where repetitive movement is involved

Signs and symptoms:

People with heel pain often complain of sharp, stabbing or dull ache along the inside of the heel upon the 1st step in the morning or pain after prolonged rest. Symptoms are usually eased with activity. 



Treatment often targets in addressing the main cause of heel pain. 

Flat Feet

Flat Feet

Flat feet, also referred to as pes planus, is a postural deformity when the arch of the foot have collapsed and come in complete or near-complete contact with the ground.


The arch has an important role in lower limb biomechanics: aids in propelling the body over the foot during walking, and assists in shock absorption. Most people have a degree of arch in the foot when they are not standing. Flexible flat foot is when the arch collapses completely when standing. When the arch is flat both sitting and standing, this is known as a rigid flat foot. 


Common causes:

  • Overuse and strain

  • Age

  • Family history of flat feet

  • Overuse & strain

  • Ligament laxity 

  • Achilles tendon tightness

  • Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction

  • Obesity

  • Pregnancy

Common signs and symptoms:

  • Low / flat arch

  • Pain / discomfort in the foot, leg or back

  • Associated deformities (e.g. bunions, arthritis)

  • Stiffness in the foot

  • Corn / callous formation

Note that pes planus can also be asymptomatic (no symptoms).

Treatment options:

  • Custom orthotics

  • Appropriate supportive footwear - (including good fitting shoes, and avoiding high heels)

  • Exercise and Physical Therapy - to keep the muscles flexible and strong

  • Weight loss

  • Daily activity modifications

Hallux Valgus 


Commonly known as a Bunion, Hallux valgus is defined as the deviation of the big toe joint . A bony lump or bump on the side of your big toe joint

Signs and symptoms

  • Painful when walking / wearing shoes 

  • On-going ache 

  • Cause skin irritation like callous, corns and blisters

  • Difficulty getting suitable footwear

  • Risk of arthritis of the big toe joint and / or related musculoskeletal conditions such as tendonitis


  • Improper footwear i.e. high heeled shoes, shoes with narrow toe box 

  • Genetics 

  • Flat feet/ hyper-mobility 

Treatment options: 

Conservative treatment includes: 

  • Footwear modification - opt for a comfortable, wide, supportive and stable footwear 

  • Orthotic management - custom orthotics are recommended to specifically prescribe an orthotic with aims to correct reducible biomechanical issues. 

Non-conservative treatment includes: ​

  • Surgery

Morton's Neuroma


Also known as interdigital neuroma, Morton's Neuroma is a thickening of the nerve found in between the metatarsal heads of the foot. This is usually a result of an entrapped nerve that becomes inflamed due to the constant irritation from the surrounding tissue structures. It is most commonly found in women, and in between the 3rd and 4th digits of the foot. 

Signs and symptoms:

  • Numbness at the end of your toe / toes 

  • Burning, tingling, pins and needles sharp radiating pain into your toes (nerve-like symptoms)

  • Patient often feels like they are "Walking on pebbles" / pain under the ball of the foot 


  • Improper footwear i.e. high heeled shoes, shoes with narrow toe box 

  • Tight calf muscles 

  • Biomechanical issues leading to increased pressure under the ball of the feet i.e. high arch / flat footed

  • Physical activities that puts a lot of pressure under the ball of the feet such as running, dancing

Treatment options: 

Conservative treatment includes: 

  • Footwear modification - opt for a comfortable, supportive and stable footwear that alleviate high 

  • Offloading devices such as neuroma pads, orthotic therapy 

  • Foot mobilisation 

  • Stretching and strengthening program to address underlying cause 

  • Dry needling 

Non-conservative treatment includes: 

  • Injection therapy such as cortisone injection, Alcohol injection

  • Radiofrequency ablation 

  • Surgery

Lesser Toe Deformities 


A range of deformities may affect the lesser toes and include claw, hammer, or mallet toes; overlapping toes; floating toes; or malposition of the toes. These conditions may either be fixed or reducible​.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Increased in pressure within shoes on the tops and tips of lesser toes

  • Discomfort in footwear or when walking

  • Difficulty finding shoes that fit comfortably

  • Thickening of the skin (calluses and corns) in areas of increased pressure 

  • Persistent ulceration in areas of pressure, especially if high risk for ulcers

  • Pain under the ball of the foot


  • Tight or narrow fitting shoes

  • Imbalance of the feet muscles

  • Trauma to bones or soft tissue

  • Anatomy of the long bones in the feet

  • Arthritis

  • An accompanying big toe deformity like a bunion

Treatment options:

Conservative treatment:

  • Shoes with a wider toe box

  • Orthotics

  • Toe props - over the counter or custom made

  • Strapping or padding

  • Muscle stretching and strengthening exercises

  • Routine care of calluses and corns

Non-conservative treatment:

  • Surgery

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